Sunday, 25 November 2012

Aerobic High-Intensity training for Soccer

The demand of exercise as a means of acquiring health-related fitness spawned the form of exercise known as 'aerobics'. Its popularity developed alongside 'sport for all' campaigns and health-promotion drives to participation physical training for recreational purposes. It was recognized that exercise programmes, especially when combined with dietary regimens, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders and aid recovery from circulatory problems.

Here are two methods of High-intensity aerobic training and some fundamentals of it. Having a look on it, we will come to know how it helps in soccer and why it has importance in training.

Effect of Training Without the Ball
In a series of studies, soccer players undertook 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity training consisting of 4 x 4-min running intervals (at an exercise intensity corresponding to 90 to 95% of HRmax) separated by 3 min of active recovery (60% to 70% of HRmax) performed twice a week. Although the magnitude of changes varied considerably between the interventions, this type of training was effective in improving VO2max (7% to 11%) and running economy (3% to 7%), as well as lowering the blood lactate accumulation during sub maximal running. The time to complete a soccer-specific circuit and the distance covered in the YYIR test level 1 improved by 14 and 13%, respectively. In agreement, Sporis told that 13 wk of short intense running bouts combined with technical drills increased VO2max (+5.2%) and performance time over several distances (between 200 and 2400 m).


English: Elio Castro at a soccer training in C...
Match running performance was also examined in some of these studies. For example, Impellizzeri reported an increased total distance (6.4%) and high intensity running (22.8%) covered during a game after the first 4 wk of aerobic high-intensity training. However, caution must be taken when interpreting game data because a number of factors influence performance during match play. Since most of these studies were conducted during the early preseason period, it is difficult to determine the independent effects of the high-intensity training beyond the normal adaptations associated with early preseason training. Furthermore, no additional physiological and performance improvements were observed when the training was extended for another 8 wk during the competitive season.

Effect of Training with the Ball
The effect of performing high-intensity training through football-specific exercises, such as small-sided games, has also been examined. A number of studies have shown that it is possible to achieve an elevated exercise intensity using the ball as demonstrated by elevated heart rates, marked blood lactate accumulations, and high rate of perceived exertions. In three studies, football players performed two weekly sessions of aerobic
high-intensity training consisting of 4 x 4 min at 90% to 95% HRmax for 8 to 10 wk with 3 min of recovery either using small-sided games or soccer dribbling around a specific track. Significant improvements in VO2max (7% to 9%) and running economy (3% to 10%) were observed irrespective of whether the training was performed before, during, or immediately after the competitive season. Specifically, Impellizzeri compared the effect of training with (using small sided games) and without the ball and reported that both exercise modes were equally effective in improving a number of physiological measures (eg, VO2max, velocity at the lactate threshold, running economy) and physical performance during a game. Although the improvements observed in physical performance during the match (eg, sprint and high-intensity running) were not different between general and specific training, it cannot be ruled out that differences may have existed. Unfortunately, only one game was examined before and after the training period and technical aspects of the match (eg, quality of passes, involvement with the ball, and time at high-intensity spent with ball possession) were not evaluated. Such technical indices can discriminate between the most and the least successful teams and may have been more positively influenced by small-sided games training.



   It is possible that the overall effect of training with small-sided games is greater for football-specific performance. In this case, after 7 wk of preseason preparation involving two 20- to 40-min weekly sessions of small-sided games, junior elite soccer players improved their YYIR test level 1 performance by 17% despite unaltered VO2max values. The training time spent above 90% of HRmax was ~40% less than that reported by Impellizzeri. However, this argument requires further scientific evidence. Soccer players do not always have the time to perform high-intensity training sessions twice per week, especially during the competitive period. Jensen examined the effect of one in-season 30-min aerobic high-intensity training session and observed 15% improvements in the YYIR level 2 (from 850 to 950 m) and a 21% reduced decrements during a repeated sprint test after a 12-wk training intervention. Apparently, 30 min of aerobic high-intensity training performed once a week was sufficient to improve football-specific intermittent exercise performance in elite players during the competitive season. However, additional more-controlled studies are needed.
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