Monday, 17 December 2012

1v1 To Goal

Today we are discussing a drill/technique for youth soccer players to prevent an opponent from getting ball before the goal post. This drill is known as 1v1  to Goal. The picture below is showing players positions and below the picture, the method is discussed to show how this drill should be practiced.


Rules:
  • B1 passes to R1, B1 tries to prevent R1 from scoring in the small goal
  • Players will switch roles after each round.
After a set period of time, defenders start from opposite corner. Given the young age of the players, it is recommended coaches use a small ball.

After each attacking sequence, the attacker becomes the goalkeeper, the goalkeeper becomes the defender, the defender becomes the attacker.

Coaching Points:
  • Defender runs quickly out to meet the attacker
  • As defender gets closer to the attacker, they must start to slow down

Enhanced by Zemanta

Sunday, 16 December 2012

1v1 Preventing an Opponent from Turning(14+)

Today we are discussing a drill/technique for youth soccer players to prevent an opponent from turning. This drill is known as 1v1 Preventing an Opponent from Turning. The picture below is showing players positions and below the picture, the method is discussed to show how this drill should be practiced.


Organization:
R3 passes to R2 and B2 prevents them from turning and scoring at the small goal. If R2 is successful they keep the ball and pass into R3 as B3 defends. If B2 wins possession game continues and B2 tries to score by dribbling or passing through the goal where R3 is standing. The game continues with B1 passing into B4. Progress by alternating between attacker and defender.

Coaching Points:
  • Touch tight to the attacker – should be able to extend your arm and touch the attacker
  • Defenders moves with the player to maintain the same distance
  • Do not allow the attacking player to turn and face up the defender
  • Time to make the tackle is when the attacking player is half turned and not protecting the ball with their body
Enhanced by Zemanta

Saturday, 15 December 2012

1v1 Preventing an Opponent from Turning(10-13)

Today we are discussing a drill/technique for youth soccer players to prevent an opponent from turning. This drill is known as 1v1 Preventing an Opponent from Turning. The picture below is showing players positions and below the picture, the method is discussed to show how this drill should be practiced.


Organization:
R3 passes to R2 and B2 prevents them from turning and scoring at the small goal. If R2 is successful they keep the ball and pass into R3 as B3 defends. If B2 wins possession game continues and B2 tries to score by dribbling or passing through the goal where R3 is standing. The game continues with B1 passing into B4. Progress by alternating between attacker and defender.

Coaching Points:
  • Touch tight to the attacker – should be able to extend your arm and touch the attacker
  • Defenders moves with the player to maintain the same distance
  • Do not allow the attacking player to turn and face up the defender
  • Time to make the tackle is when the attacking player is half turned and not protecting the ball with their body.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Friday, 14 December 2012

1v1 Preventing an Opponent from Turning(6-9)

Today we are discussing a drill/technique for youth soccer players to prevent an opponent from turning. This drill is known as 1v1 Preventing an Opponent from Turning. The picture below is showing players positions and below the method is discussed to show how this drill should pe practiced.



Organization:
R3 passes to R2 and B2 prevents them from turning and scoring at the small goal. If R2 is successful they keep the ball and pass into R3 as B3 defends. If B2 wins possession game continues and B2 tries to score by dribbling or passing through the goal where R3 is standing. The game continues with B1 passing into B4. Progress by alternating between attacker and defender.

Coaching Points:
  • Touch tight to the attacker – should be able to extend your arm and touch the attacker.
  • Defenders moves with the player to maintain the same distance.
  • Do not allow the attacking player to turn and face up the defender.
  • Time to make the tackle is when the attacking player is half turned and not protecting the ball with their body.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Wednesday, 12 December 2012

1v1 Defending(14+)

Today we are discussing a defending drill/technique for youth soccer players. This is known as 1v1 defending. The picture below is showing players positions and below the method is discussed to show how 1v1 defending is done.



Rules:

  • S1 serves the ball to S3 who controls and attacks the small goal
  • Goals can be scored by dribbling or passing through the small goal
  • As S1 passes to S3, D1 quickly comes out to defend the small goal
  • If D1 wins possession then play to S4 and sequence starts again


Coaching Points:

  • D1 moves quickly to close down S3 (can D1 meet S3 in their defending half?)
  • D1 bends their run to push S3 away from goal
  • D1 tackles when the opportunity arises

Progress by changing the goal to the opposite side of the field so players practice bending their run in each direction.

Player Rotation
S1 changes with S3
S3 changes with D1
D1 changes with S1

1v1 Defending(10-13)

Today we are discussing a defending technique for youth soccer players. This is known as 1v1 defending. The picture below is showing players positions and below the method is discussed to show how 1v1 defending is done. 



Rules:

  • S1 serves the ball to S3 who controls and attacks the small goal
  • Goals can be scored by dribbling or passing through the small goal
  • As S1 passes to S3, D1 quickly comes out to defend the small goal
  • If D1 wins possession then play to S4 and sequence starts again

Coaching Points:

  • D1 moves quickly to close down S3 (can D1 meet S3 in their defending half?)
  • D1 bends their run to push S3 away from goal
  • D1 tackles when the opportunity arises

Progress by changing the goal to the opposite side of the field so players practice bending their run in each direction.

Player Rotation
S1 changes with S3
S3 changes with D1
D1 changes with S1

Monday, 10 December 2012

1v1 Defending(6-9)

Today we are discussing a defending technique for youth soccer players. This is known as 1v1 defending. The picture below is showing players positions and below the method is discussed to show how 1v1 defending is done. 


Rules:
  • S1 serves the ball to S3 who controls and attacks the small goal
  • Goals can be scored by dribbling or passing through the small goal
  • As S1 passes to S3, D1 quickly comes out to defend the small goal
  • If D1 wins possession then play to S4 and sequence starts again

Coaching Points:
  • D1 moves quickly to close down S3 (can D1 meet S3 in their defending half?)
  • D1 bends their run to push S3 away from goal
  • D1 tackles when the opportunity arises

Progress by changing the goal to the opposite side of the field so players practice bending their run in each direction.

Player Rotation

S1 changes with S3
S3 changes with D1
D1 changes with S1

Sunday, 9 December 2012

Defending Warm-up (6-9)

Today we are discussing how to warm up for defending... This is a great way to warm up for defenders before going to play and perform in the field. Following is a way showed how to do the defending warm up.



Organization:
In pairs, players pass back and forth. When one player within the pair puts the sole of their foot on the ball they must react and quickly move to close them down. After two seconds the defending player moves back to their original position and the sequence starts again.


Progress:
Rather than stopping the ball with their foot, one player allows the ball to pass between their legs. The player who passed the ball moves quickly to close them down. This simulates defending against a player with their back to the goal. Allow the players to stop the ball with the sole of their foot or let it go between their legs; it is their decision.

Coaching Points:

  • React quickly to the actions of your partner
  • Long strides to start and as you get closer to your partner shorten steps
  • Touch tight
  • Knees bent and feet staggered, not flat or ball can be put between your legs
  • Weight toward your toes, on the balls of your feet
  • Pressure the ball quickly and get back to your original position quickly.

Thursday, 6 December 2012

8 Mistakes that New Youth Soccer Coaches make

For many youth coaches, improving the soccer skills of their players fast, motivating them the right way and making training more fun and interesting can be a really nightmare. But that nightmare doesn't have to happen, especially when you know, first hand, the most common mistakes new youth soccer coaches make. This article will help you avoid those mistakes by laying out the most typical youth soccer coaching missteps.


English: Photo of soccer player and coach, Col...

1. Not Knowing How To Keep Player’s Interest, Focus And Attention In Practice

Children who are enthusiastic during a game can become moody and restless when they have to do drills, especially if they aren't much fun. This can lead to loss of interest and indiscipline during training sessions. The best way to keep your practice sessions interesting is to have a plan. That means you need to make your drills as fun and creative as possible.

Make things a little competitive as well - pitting small teams against each other in passing or dribbling drills makes the kids encourage each other and work as a team. A reward system can also do wonders in kindling interest in soccer practice. A good incentive for most children is to promise them some game time at the end of each practice session.

2. Lack Of Motivation

Motivation can have a major impact on the performance of your players. You need to strike the balance so that your team players work towards a common team goal by making their individual contributions. You have to find ways to motivate them and build their self-confidence so that they actually believe they can succeed.

You should try to make your training sessions interesting and fun, set goals in advance (both short term and long term), show a positive attitude, and always be supportive. Also don’t forget to show confidence in your players, encourage them often and talk to each one individually and regularly.

3. Teaching Players At Different Skill Levels On The Same Team

You have a mixed bag of skill sets. The first thing you need to do as a coach is watch the practice sessions carefully. It's important to recognize the potential in each and every player and to ensure that no one feels they are better or stronger than the rest. Don't single out the stronger players for simple coaching tasks or
make an example of them.

Don't assign the same drill to all of them with varying degrees of difficulty, as this can also cultivate a feeling of inferiority among players. Having them all work on different drills will make it clear that different players are good at different things. Make it clear to your players that they need to work together, as a team. No player is better or worse than the other - each player has his own strengths.

4. Not Making Training FUN!

If your players have fun playing and feel a sense of achievement while practicing, they will look forward to coming back. The fun aspect needs to be built in. A way to keep training fun and avoid boredom is to ensure that players get adequate possession of the ball.

You can do that by simply keeping fewer players to a side and keep your fields small. This ensures that the ball is shared between fewer players and everyone stays involved. Also find ways of making your players warm up without making it sound like a military drill. Maybe you could have short dribbling sessions around the cones or make them play a light game of catch instead.

5. Not building Teamwork and playing as a Team

Have a team meeting before practice and get everyone to comment on previous activities. Before the first ever practice of the season, spend some time setting goals that can be achieved by your team. These goals must be constantly monitored and discussed by the group. For every mini goal that is accomplished, don’t forget to reward your players. It will tell them that you care about how well they are doing.

A short trip at the end of your season can be something to really look forward to. The togetherness promotes team spirit. When you go on these camping trips, it can be great if you can organize a friendly soccer match with a local team. This keeps your players busy and builds their self-confidence and friendship.

6. Not Developing Passing Skills

Passing is a fundamental skill in soccer and you must come up with a variety of drills in your training sessions to make sure every player in your team becomes expert at passing. Passing also involves the creation of space to receive the ball.

The player must put himself in a position to make the pass while keeping an eye on the target. The right passing technique must be used, by approaching the ball from the right angle and the ball must then be kicked with the appropriate part of the foot.

7. Difficulty in Understanding and teaching the Drills

Another big problem that coaches face is making drills simple so that the players understand it easily. For example, in order to make things much easier, you have to explain every drill with simple step-by-step instructions, diagrams and key points.

A good exercise is to imagine that all the kids are playing soccer for the first time, so you need to teach the drills in a way that they can understand the different procedures easily.

8. Poor Finishing Skills

Do you remember any games where everything goes right all the way up to the final shot from 15 yards into a goal with just the goalkeeper in sight? Chances are if the players haven’t been taught right, this is the point where it all comes apart. Your ace takes a shot, the goalie intercepts, by the time the attacker is able to do anything to the ball a second time, the entire team is in the box and there is a melee.

Sounds familiar? The important thing to be taught to your players is that the first or the second shot is not important, it is the shot that is converted into a goal that is important and till the whistle blows, your players have got to keep attacking.

Sidestep the problems

These 8 mistakes are pretty common among new youth soccer coaches. Avoiding the pitfalls will take you through the youth soccer coaching success path faster, and you will come out on the other side a much better coach.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Tuesday, 4 December 2012

How to stop the ball like Ronaldo

You've watched soccer for years, but nobody has mastered that trick of stopping ball like Cristiano Ronaldo. His power, his skill, his intellect, the ultra thin material within his boots as well as the technology of the modern day soccer balls all make him able to stop the ball in an amazing manner.


Cristiano Ronaldo


Below is a video tutorial of 30 seconds that describes his ability and skills of stopping the ball in a brilliant manner.


Keep practicing this beautiful trick and learn to make fool of defenders and improve your skills.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Monday, 3 December 2012

How to do Top Spin in Soccer

As you can see, this is a common question from many of the football fans, especially player to know about how to the top spin shoot or make a top spin with soccer ball. It is also not easy to pull off. It is easier to understand from seeing than reading about. So take a look at the following video, focus it , learn from it and apply with your keen interest.



So here we go now to show you your easy way to learn and do top spin with soccer ball.

I hope it will help you learn easily to doing the top spin in soccer.


Enhanced by Zemanta

Sunday, 2 December 2012

Muscle actions during Soccer Skills

Soccer practitioners require many attributes to become successful players. These include cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, endurance, flexibility, agility, coordination, skill and tactical knowledge. Few players possess ‘natural ability’ in all areas, indeed the vast majority of players undergo training programmes, in some or all attributes, to improve their ability on the field.

Following are muscle actions which are part of soccer and which are important to be analyzed for physical fitness and strength for soccer.

1. Running


Running is an integral part of soccer. Indeed soccer players may cover approximately 10 km during a single game. The running action may be divided into two stages, swing and support. Support begins at the point when the foot makes contact with the ground (foot strike) and ends at the point when the foot leaves contact with the ground (toe-off). The swing phase begins at toe-off and ends at foot strike.
   At toe-off the swing leg is in a position of extension of the hip, extension of the knee and plantar-flexion of the ankle. The gluteals and hamstrings are still acting to extend the hip and the gastrocnemius to plantar-flex the ankle giving a good push off. The actions of psoas and iliacus flex the hip, the hamstrings flex the knee and the anterior tibials dorsi-flex the ankle. The hip continues to flex and the ankle to dorsi-flex to bring the leg forwards in front of the support leg; the adductors act to prevent the thigh from swinging outwards. The quadriceps then begin to extend the knee in preparation for foot strike.

When foot strike occurs the hip is in flexion, the knee is in slight flexion and the ankle is normally dorsi-flexed and slightly inverted. At this point the weight of the body must be controlled as it hits the ground. The gluteals contract to extend the hip, the quadriceps and hamstrings contract to stabilize the knee joint and the adductors to stabilize the hip. The anterior tibials work eccentrically and the gastrocnemius concentrically to control the foot as it strikes the ground. The momentum of the body carries it forwards over the ankle joint which acts as a rocker as the foot becomes flat to the ground and then toe-off occurs.


As the speed of running increases longer strides are taken. In this instance the swing phase involves greater knee flexion and hip extension (the heel almost touching the buttock) and greater hip flexion in the later part of the phase.
   When running with a ball much shorter strides are taken as the player must be ready to change direction and speed. At the toe-off phase the leg may not be as extended. Heel strike may not be as pronounced, instead the foot may land in a more neutral position or be plantar flexed.
   The muscles of the arms and trunk also play an important role during running. They act to maintain balance and to counterbalance the rotation of the body when the pelvis rotates.

2. Kicking a ball
There are many different types of kick in soccer, e.g. running kick, volley and push pass (Pronk, 1991). Skilled players can also impose spin on the ball and cause it to dip quickly in flight. In such cases the kicking action is quite complex. For the purposes of this text the kick is simplified into that of movement in one plane. This action may also be divided into four phases: phase one, priming the thigh and leg during back-swing; phase two, rotation of the thigh and leg laterally and flexion of the hip; phase three, deceleration of the thigh and acceleration of the leg; and finally stage four, the follow through.


During phase one the hip of the kicking leg is rapidly extended by the action of the gluteals and the pelvis is rotated backwards. The knee is flexed by the hamstrings and the anterior tibials dorsi-flex the ankle. These actions are limited by the hip flexors and the adductors which often become overstretched in many players. The harder the subsequent kick the further the stretch on these muscles. During phase two the psoas and iliacus contract and the hip flexes to move the thigh and leg forwards and the pelvis rotates forwards. Phase three involves the hamstrings acting to decelerate the thigh and the quadriceps rapidly extend the knee joint. The position of the ankle joint during ball strike is dependent upon the type of kick performed. In addition, the adductors will contract to pull the leg towards the body. This is especially relevant during a side kick or push pass. Phase four begins after the ball has lost contact with the foot, the leg and thigh will follow through due to the momentum of the thigh, leg and foot. This causes a stretch on the muscles opposing these actions, especially the hamstrings as they pass over two joints (De Proft et al., 1988).

The muscles of the non-kicking leg act in a similar fashion to their behavior during the stance phase of running. However, they act mainly to stabilize the body to provide a stable platform on which the kicking leg may act. This leg is usually abducted and rotated. Again the muscles of the arms and trunk work to maintain poise and balance and to provide a counterbalance to the kicking leg, thus providing more control and speed.

3. Jumping and heading
Jumping to control the ball in the air is of major importance in soccer. Jumping can occur from a standing position or from a run-up. Take off from a standing jump is usually from both feet and from one leg when using a run up. When performing a standing jump the player will sink down into a position of flexion. The trunk, hips and knees will flex and the ankle will dorsi-flex under the action of body weight and gravity but controlled by the agonist to these movements acting eccentrically (erector spinae, gluteals, hamstrings, quadriceps and plantar flexors). The elbows will flex and the shoulders will be extended. In this position the body is almost spring-like; the prime movers of the jumping action are on a stretch, storing potential energy ready to be released at the appropriate moment. When the jump itself begins the prime movers act to launch the body weight up in the air. This is achieved by rapid and powerful contractions of the erector spinae, gluteals, hamstrings, quadriceps and plantar flexors to produce extension of the trunk, hips, knees and plantar flexion of the ankles. The arms are also moved rapidly forwards and upwards by flexion of the shoulders and extension of the elbows. When the spine becomes extended during the jumping action a severe stretch may be placed on the abdominal muscles and the hip flexors and injury to these muscles may occur.


Landing from a jump is just as important as the jump itself, as the weight of the body must be controlled as it hits the ground. Basically it is a reverse of the jumping action. However, this time the muscles of jumping act eccentrically to control joint movement and decelerate the action, thereby increasing shock absorption and decreasing the risk of injury.

The primary aim of most jumps in soccer is to head the ball, but heading may also occur from a standing position. As a player jumps the neck becomes extended partly from the effects of gravity and partly due to the action of the erector spinae muscles. As a player attempts to make contact with the ball they will aim their head at it. This may involve a combination of movements. Flexion of the neck is the most powerful action but this may be combined with rotation or lateral flexion to direct the ball.

4. Throwing a football


Throw-ins are usually taken from a short run-up and a two-footed stance. With both feet level the erector spinae, gluteals and the hamstrings contract to extend the spine and the hips. The dorsi flexors act eccentrically to allow the ankles to move into a small degree of plantar flexion without losing balance. The ball is held in both hands and the two arms are held up above the head. The shoulders are moved into full flexion and the elbows also are now fully flexed. This creates full stretch on the antagonist groups and potential energy is stored. As the throw begins these now become prime movers which contract from a stretched position. The elbows become extended, the shoulders become more extended. The contraction of the abdominal and psoas and iliacus causes the spine and hips to flex. Dorsi flexion of the ankles is controlled by the eccentric action of gastrocnemius and soleus.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Saturday, 1 December 2012

Fatigue in Soccer

Fatigue can be defined as a decline in performance due to the necessity to continue performing. In soccer it is manifest in a deterioration in work-rate towards the end of a game. Studies which have compared work-rates between first and second halves of matches have provided evidence of the occurrence of fatigue.

   Belgian university players were found to cover on average a distance of 444 m more in the first half than in the second half (Van Gool et al., 1988). Bangsbo et al. (1991) reported that the distance covered in the first half was 5% greater than in the second. This decrement does not necessarily occur in all players. Reilly and Thomas (1976) noted an inverse relation between aerobic fitness (VO2max) and decrements in work-rate. The players with the higher VO2max values, those in midfield and full-back positions, did not exhibit a significant drop in distance covered in the second half. In contrast all the centre-backs and 86% of the strikers had higher figures for the first half, the difference between halves being significant. It does seem that the impact of a high aerobic fitness level is especially evident in the later parts of a match.

  The amount of glycogen stored in the thigh muscles pre-match appears to have an important protective function against fatigue. Swedish club players with low glycogen content in the vastus lateralis muscle were found to cover 25% less overall distance than the other players (Saltin, 1973). A more marked effect was noted for running speed; those with low muscle glycogen stores pre-match covered 50% of the total distance walking and 15% at top speed compared to 27% walking and 24% sprinting for players who started with high muscle glycogen concentrations. Attention to diet and maintaining muscle glycogen stores by not training too severely are recommended in the immediate build-up for competition. These considerations would be most important in deciders where drawn matches are extended into 30 minutes extra time.
  Youth players of a professional club showed positive responses to consuming a maltodextrin solution during training. The subjective assessments of coaches of their players’ performance corroborated the judgments of the players (Miles et al., 1992). Dietary advice given to the senior professionals resulted in an alteration of nutritional support. The distribution of macro-nutrients in the diet of the players also improved (Reilly, 1994b). Manipulation of energy intake by provision of a high carbohydrate diet improved performance in a running test designed to interpret the activity profile of a soccer match (Bangsbo et al., 1992). Whilst goals may be scored at any time during a game, most are scored towards the end of a game.



This is exemplified by data from the Scottish League during an extended period of the 1991–92 season (Figure 5.3). A higher than average scoring rate occurred in the final 10 minutes of play. This cannot be explained simply by a fall in work-rate, as logically this would be balanced out between the two opposing teams. It might be accounted for by the more pronounced deterioration among defenders which gives an advantage to the attackers towards the end of a game. Alternatively it may be linked with ‘mental fatigue’, lapses in concentration as a consequence of sustained physical effort leading to tactical errors that open up goal-scoring chances. The phenomenon may be a factor inherent in the game, play becoming more urgent towards the end despite the fall in physical capabilities. Irrespective of the nature of the phenomenon, a team that is physiologically and tactically prepared to last 90 minutes of intense play is likely to be an effective unit.

   Environmental conditions may also impose a limit on the exercise intensity that can be maintained for the duration of a soccer game or hasten the onset of fatigue during it. Major soccer tournaments, for example the World Cup finals in Spain in 1982, in Italy in 1990 and in the USA in 1994, have been held in hot countries with ambient temperatures above 30 °C. The work-rate is adversely affected when hot conditions are combined with high humidity. Performance is influenced both by the rise in core temperature and dehydration, and sweat production will be ineffective for losing heat when relative humidity is 100%. Cognitive function, akin to the kind of decision making required during match-play, is better maintained during 90 minutes of continuous exercise when water is supplied intermittently to subjects compared to a control condition (Reilly and Lewis, 1985). Adequate hydration pre-exercise and during the intermissions is important when players have to play in the heat. The opportunity to acclimatize to heat prior to competing in tournaments in hot climates is an essential element in the systematic preparation for such events. This may be realized by astute location of training camps, a good physiological adaptation being realized within 10–14 days of the initial exposure in hot weather or regular and frequent exposures to heat in an environmental chamber.


Italian football (soccer) player Elvis Abbruscato

  The major consequences of playing in cold conditions are likely to be associated with liability to injury. This would be pronounced when playing on icy pitches without facilities for underground heating. Muscle performance deteriorates as muscle temperature falls; therefore a good warm-up prior to playing in cold weather and use of appropriate sportswear to maintain warmth and avoid the deterioration in performance synonymous with fatigue would be important. It is also established that injury is more likely to occur in games players if the warm-up routine is inappropriate (Reilly and Stirling, 1993). Therefore, pre-match exercises should engage the muscle groups employed during the game, particularly in executing soccer skills.

   The interactions between environmental variables and soccer performer are covered more extensively elsewhere in this volume. A consensus statement of nutritional needs of the soccer player and guidelines for fluid replacement to offset work-rate deterioration are outlined by Ekblom and Williams (1994).

Reference:
Science and Soccer
by Thomas Reilly

Enhanced by Zemanta

Thursday, 29 November 2012

Nutrition for Soccer

Successful soccer competition requires players to cover 10-12 km of moderate running whilst having the ability to react and perform intense efforts such as sprinting, jumping and kicking. The ’intermittent activity’ that characterizes soccer increases energy expenditure and fatigue in athletes when compared to activities that are more continuous such as running or cycling.

Fatigue in soccer is evident with reports that running distances in the second half of games can be 300 meters lower than in the first half of games. Most of this lower work rate occurs in the last 10 minutes. This will impact on performance as players cannot supply the intense efforts needed to perform important actions such as sprinting, tackling, shooting etc and will have a decreased ability to close down the opposition and support other players.

A diet rich in soy and whey protein, found in ...

A number of factors can cause this including dehydration and lowered muscle glycogen levels. Research has shown that if soccer coaches can minimize the effect of these 2 processes then soccer players will be able to increase the distances they run in games and have the sustained ability to produce intense efforts towards the end of games.
Decreased/Exhausted Muscle Glycogen levels
Muscle glycogen is stored in the body when carbohydrates are consumed in the diet and supplies energy for both high and low intensity activities. Near empty muscle glycogen stores will not only affect physical performance on the pitch but also the players ability to concentrate and perform fine skills. Saltin’s (1973) classic study (see table 1) highlighted the effects of low pre-match glycogen levels (through a low carbohydrate diet) on performance during soccer competition. He highlighted that a low carbohydrate diet caused low muscle glycogen levels prior to a soccer game, which caused players to walk more during the game and sprint less. This also had an impact on the distances covered. A high carbohydrate diet meant players covered 12000 meters but a low carbohydrate diet meant players only covered 9700 meters and covered 1500 meters less in the second half than they did in the first half showing fatigue occurred.


Dehydration
During soccer matches fluid loss will be produced due to the demands on respiration and increased sweating in an attempt to cool the body. Depending on the conditions and temperatures during a soccer match fluid loss can correspond to 2-5 kg of body mass loss. In an average 70 kg footballer this can reflect a 3-5% reduction in body mass, which has been linked to a decrease in endurance capacity (therefore lowered running distances), 35% decrease in high intensity exercise (therefore lower sprinting, jumping, kicking levels) and difficulties in concentration.

Therefore you as a soccer coach must design a way to minimize this occurring by ensuring that your players engage in and understand beneficial nutritional strategies to maintain muscle glycogen and prevent dehydration.

Pre Match Nutrition Strategies
  • Players should be fully hydrated prior to a match by consuming adequate amounts of water 2 days before the match (hydration can be checked by players looking at their own urine, if its not transparent or straw colored then water consumption should be increased).
  • A pre-match meal should be eaten 3 hours prior to competition (eating later than this means players could experience intestinal problems, eating earlier may cause players to be fasting their glycogen stores prior to the match).
  • Ideally players should eat 4 g /kg of body weight of carbohydrate (representing 280 g of carbohydrate for a 70 kg player) before the match with a little protein and little to no fat.
  • An ideal meal would have 2 types of carbohydrate such as vegetables and potatoes or vegetables and pasta with a little light meat such as chicken or fish if desired.
  • If players cannot eat enough solid carbohydrate before the match then a carbohydrate drink could also be added to the meal.
  • Most teams do not have the facility to provide a set pre-match meal to their players that follow these principles. Therefore the coach needs to educate their players about these principles, so that they can be followed at home prior to a game without the coaches guidance.
  • Players should drink a carbohydrate drink immediately before kick off or no later than 30 minutes before kick off (this should a 5-10% solution e.g. 500 ml drink should have at least 25-50 grams of carbohydrate in).
During the Match Nutrition Strategies
  • Players should attempt to stay hydrated and top up their glycogen levels.
  • Ideally players will drink 200 ml every 15-20 minutes during the match.  Therefore the coach must get players to drink whenever there are pauses in the game such as injuries.
  • It has been debated whether players should drink water or a carbohydrate drink (drinking water will mean it is emptied from the stomach from the intestine quicker, but a carbohydrate drink will top up glycogen levels).
  • The basic principle adopted is during the 1st half players consume a carbohydrate drink that is 2-3% (will reflect 10 grams of carbohydrates per 500 ml)
  • At half time players should drink a carbohydrate drink that has 6-7% carbs and also consume a small amount of solid quick release carbohydrates such as sweets.
  • In the second half players should continue consuming the 6-7% carbohydrate solution.
  • Players should have consumed 600-800 ml of fluid through the match.
NOTE: All fluids consumed should contain 0.5 grams of sodium (salt) per liter of fluid to ensure that the water is utilized and not passed through urine.

Post Match Nutrition Strategies
  • Nutrition immediately after the match will have a huge impact on how players recover from the match.
  • Players need to consume 10 g/kg body mass of carbohydrate over the 24 hours after the match (reflecting 700 grams of carbohydrate in our ‘average’ 70 kg footballer).
  • Players also need to consume 1.5 x body mass loss of fluids (e.g. if our player weighed 70 kg prior to the game and weighs 67.5 kg after the match then 3.75 liters of fluid should be consumed over the next 12 hours - remember the sodium!)
  • 2 hours after a match reflects the time when the body will respond the most to proper nutrition therefore this is the time when coaches should get players to eat and drink maybe with a team pre-match meal.
  • However the sooner within this 2 hours you can get players to hydrate and eat the better, e.g. players should be encouraged to consume a carbohydrate drink when coming off the pitch.
  • Over this 2-hour period 2-3g/kg body mass of carbohydrates should be eaten with at lest 6 grams of protein being consumed.
  • Players should therefore drink a 10% carbohydrate drink immediately after a game and then eat a meal that has quick release carbohydrates in such as mashed potato and white rice including some protein such as a chicken breast or some tuna.
  • Due to the rigors of the game some players may not be able to ‘stomach’ solid foods therefore they should be encouraged to drink large amounts of a carbohydrate drink to ensure muscle glycogen is replenished.
You as a coach should adopt these principles regardless of whether you coach a youth, amateur or professional team. Ensure your players are educated about what they should be eating and drinking, or in higher standard teams having sit down meals that reflect these basic principles.

Enhanced by Zemanta

Monday, 26 November 2012

Applications of High Intensity Soccer Training

Aerobic high-intensity training has typically focused on enhancing VO2max, utilizing training protocols that elicit high percentages of VO2max that are sustainable for an extended period of time. However, the importance of VO2max in football has been questioned. Indeed, in a number of studies dealing with already trained individuals, improvements in specific performance tests were not associated with significant changes in VO2max. Nevertheless, even though useful in endurance events (eg, running, cycling), the limitations of performing continuous aerobic high-intensity training for football should be considered. Match analysis systems show that, during a game, players perform ~250 brief intense runs as well as many other demanding activities, including turning, tackling, jumping, kicking, and breaking. Thus, both the characteristics and the intermittent nature of the game should be taken into account when designing training programs for football. As a consequence, we suggest that aerobic and speed-endurance training should be football related and preferably performed with the ball. There are several advantages associated with carrying out soccer-specific training compared with generic training activities. For example, the ability to change direction at high running speed is specifically related to the type of training performed. Therefore, it is important that the training activities resemble those experienced during the game so that the groups of muscles engaged in football are trained, and the specific coordination abilities developed. This outcome can be achieved through small-sided games or football-related drills consisting of repeated exercise bouts involving changes of speed, direction, and specific movement patterns typical of those performed during match play.


English: Ryan Valentine scores the goal that k...

   The study by Ferrari Bravo showed that a training protocol employing 4 x 4-min continuous running at 90% to 95% HRmax improved VO2max but was less effective in enhancing football-specific performance (YYIR test) compared with repeated-sprint training. On the contrary, repeated sprint5 and small-sided game training were both very effective in improving YYIR performance. The physiological responses to continuous exercise are different from those to intermittent exercise, with the latter allowing higher prolonged metabolic stress with less marked fatigue. For example, the rise of the O2 uptake is faster, the total utilization of O2 bound to myoglobin is greater, and the fluctuations of muscle ATP and creatine phosphate are more pronounced when intense exercise is repeated. In addition, substrate utilization and fiber type recruitment are different, with intermittent exercise activating both slow and fast twitch fibers, which would have been recruited only after prolonged sub maximal continuous exercise. These aspects are particularly relevant for team sports in which the ability to perform high-intensity intermittent exercise is essential.

   Another advantage of performing specific high-intensity training in football is that the coordination, technical, and tactical skills are trained under fatiguing conditions closer to match play. For example, a study from the Italian Serie A league reported that players of the most successful teams cover a greater total distance (18%), including a higher proportion of high-intensity (16%) running in possession of the ball compared with players of less successful teams. Thus, the players’ ability to exercise at high-intensity when interacting with the ball may be an important determinant for success. In addition, studies have shown that forwards often receive the ball while sprinting or turning and cover ~64% of their high-intensity running distance with ball possession. Furthermore, the players’ involvement with the ball, short passes, and successful short passes decrease between the first and the second half as well as after periods of very high-intensity exercise during matches. These findings highlight the importance of increasing the players’ contact with the ball during high-intensity training sessions. Technical and tactical training should be performed under conditions that replicate the physical demands of a competitive game.



   When carrying out fitness training with the ball, it is fundamental to make sure that players are exercising at the desired intensity. Exercise intensity can be manipulated during small-sided games via modification of variables such as field dimension, number of players, the coach’s verbal encouragement, and specific rules. Studies have shown that different combinations of these factors may lead to a variety of intensities resulting in ranges from ~84% of maximal heart rate (blood lactate concentration of ~3.4 mmol/L) during a six-a-side game on small pitch without coach encouragement, to ~91% of maximal heart rate (blood lactate concentration of ~6.5 mmol/L) during a three-a-side game on a larger pitch with coach encouragement. All this information suggests that small sided games represent a valid aerobic training stimulus.

   In modern football, players may be required to play up to ~50 games over a season, and it is important to maximize the limited time available for training. Under these circumstances, the match analysis data could be useful for examining the physical demands of match play and then designing specific game-related training drills based on the players’ needs (ie, technical, tactical and physical). For example, central defenders cover less total distance and perform less high intensity running than players in other positions. In contrast, the decline in high-intensity running with ball possession is greater for attackers and external midfielders, most likely as a result of their increased high-intensity exercise and shorter recovery periods between intense bouts. Furthermore, central midfielders complete a higher percentage of explosive sprints whereas attackers and fullbacks perform more leading sprints. Finally, although each tactical role is characterized by a typical activity profile, large individual variations in work profile are evident within the same playing position. Thus, it is important that the type and the amount of high-intensity football training are specific to the competitive demands of match play.

Referenced By:
F. Marcello Iaia, Ermanno Rampinini, and Jens Bangsbo

Enhanced by Zemanta

Sunday, 25 November 2012

Aerobic High-Intensity training for Soccer

The demand of exercise as a means of acquiring health-related fitness spawned the form of exercise known as 'aerobics'. Its popularity developed alongside 'sport for all' campaigns and health-promotion drives to participation physical training for recreational purposes. It was recognized that exercise programmes, especially when combined with dietary regimens, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders and aid recovery from circulatory problems.

Here are two methods of High-intensity aerobic training and some fundamentals of it. Having a look on it, we will come to know how it helps in soccer and why it has importance in training.

Effect of Training Without the Ball
In a series of studies, soccer players undertook 8 to 12 wk of aerobic high-intensity training consisting of 4 x 4-min running intervals (at an exercise intensity corresponding to 90 to 95% of HRmax) separated by 3 min of active recovery (60% to 70% of HRmax) performed twice a week. Although the magnitude of changes varied considerably between the interventions, this type of training was effective in improving VO2max (7% to 11%) and running economy (3% to 7%), as well as lowering the blood lactate accumulation during sub maximal running. The time to complete a soccer-specific circuit and the distance covered in the YYIR test level 1 improved by 14 and 13%, respectively. In agreement, Sporis told that 13 wk of short intense running bouts combined with technical drills increased VO2max (+5.2%) and performance time over several distances (between 200 and 2400 m).


English: Elio Castro at a soccer training in C...
Match running performance was also examined in some of these studies. For example, Impellizzeri reported an increased total distance (6.4%) and high intensity running (22.8%) covered during a game after the first 4 wk of aerobic high-intensity training. However, caution must be taken when interpreting game data because a number of factors influence performance during match play. Since most of these studies were conducted during the early preseason period, it is difficult to determine the independent effects of the high-intensity training beyond the normal adaptations associated with early preseason training. Furthermore, no additional physiological and performance improvements were observed when the training was extended for another 8 wk during the competitive season.

Effect of Training with the Ball
The effect of performing high-intensity training through football-specific exercises, such as small-sided games, has also been examined. A number of studies have shown that it is possible to achieve an elevated exercise intensity using the ball as demonstrated by elevated heart rates, marked blood lactate accumulations, and high rate of perceived exertions. In three studies, football players performed two weekly sessions of aerobic
high-intensity training consisting of 4 x 4 min at 90% to 95% HRmax for 8 to 10 wk with 3 min of recovery either using small-sided games or soccer dribbling around a specific track. Significant improvements in VO2max (7% to 9%) and running economy (3% to 10%) were observed irrespective of whether the training was performed before, during, or immediately after the competitive season. Specifically, Impellizzeri compared the effect of training with (using small sided games) and without the ball and reported that both exercise modes were equally effective in improving a number of physiological measures (eg, VO2max, velocity at the lactate threshold, running economy) and physical performance during a game. Although the improvements observed in physical performance during the match (eg, sprint and high-intensity running) were not different between general and specific training, it cannot be ruled out that differences may have existed. Unfortunately, only one game was examined before and after the training period and technical aspects of the match (eg, quality of passes, involvement with the ball, and time at high-intensity spent with ball possession) were not evaluated. Such technical indices can discriminate between the most and the least successful teams and may have been more positively influenced by small-sided games training.



   It is possible that the overall effect of training with small-sided games is greater for football-specific performance. In this case, after 7 wk of preseason preparation involving two 20- to 40-min weekly sessions of small-sided games, junior elite soccer players improved their YYIR test level 1 performance by 17% despite unaltered VO2max values. The training time spent above 90% of HRmax was ~40% less than that reported by Impellizzeri. However, this argument requires further scientific evidence. Soccer players do not always have the time to perform high-intensity training sessions twice per week, especially during the competitive period. Jensen examined the effect of one in-season 30-min aerobic high-intensity training session and observed 15% improvements in the YYIR level 2 (from 850 to 950 m) and a 21% reduced decrements during a repeated sprint test after a 12-wk training intervention. Apparently, 30 min of aerobic high-intensity training performed once a week was sufficient to improve football-specific intermittent exercise performance in elite players during the competitive season. However, additional more-controlled studies are needed.
Enhanced by Zemanta

Friday, 23 November 2012

First Touch in Soccer

In Soccer, to be in control of the ball is of great importance to every level of player. The ability to control an awkward bouncing ball quickly and effectively gives the player with the ball the immediate advantage. First touch is often the difference between success and failure in most situations during the match.

As the game of soccer progresses in more competitive levels the speed of play also increases. This means that first touch is critical for these players. As players get older, the game gets faster, and demands more speed. At this level, there is a greater need for first-time passes and a precise first touch on the ball. Often, players cannot always play a first-time ball; therefore, they must trap the ball, or may have to dribble if no teammates are in position to receive a first-time pass.

Deutsch: Dribbling beim Fußball.

Time and space go hand-in-hand in soccer. The less time a player takes to do something, the more time they will have to take advantage of it. Typically when controlling a ball, a player will do one of three things after controlling the ball: shield the ball by putting their body between the ball and the opponent, pass (or shoot) the ball; or they will dribble the ball. The space and time they have to do these things will depend on how good the player’s first touch is when receiving the ball.

First touch is the key
While practice can do wonders for teaching you how to handle the ball from the moment it touches your feet, here are a few basic concepts to keep in mind whether you are a newbie to the position just learning this vital skill or a veteran working on improving your team’s offensive play.

1. Take control immediately.
You cannot afford even a second of hesitation. Your first touch should be taking control of the ball; your second touch should be proactive, moving the ball where it needs to go.

2. Aim toward your goal as a default.
When you don’t know where to go, start moving the ball toward your goal. You can then think about what you are going to do next. This practice prevents that moment of hesitation that can lose games, and moving a ball toward the goal is rarely a bad idea. Unless the ball is under pressure, in which case…

3. Steer the ball away from the opposing team.
It seems intuitive, but many players panic at this moment and try to get through the opposition. Go around the crowd, go away from the crowd, go anywhere except into the crowd.

4. When under pressure, pass.
If the opposing team is moving in on you from all different sides, you likely won’t get very far with the ball. The best option in this case is usually to pass the ball to the nearest open teammate. It’s important to make this decision and execute early, before you are completely surrounded.

5. Follow through.
Once you have committed to a course of action, don’t be intimidated. Follow through unless there is a compelling reason not to. However….

6. Be flexible.
If the play you originally envisioned is clearly not going to work out, switch to Plan B immediately. Don’t waste another second on a strategy that won’t yield results.

7. Shoot, if you can.
Sometimes a window for a goal opens up just as the ball hits your feet. If you see this, go for it! Every second you hesitate is a second that the opposing team is noticing that same window and working toward closing it.

8. Use your body to protect the ball.
If you intend to keep possession of the ball, even for a second, direct your body so you are always directly behind the ball. This may take some fancy footwork, but, after all, this is soccer.

Enhanced by Zemanta